It spanned 85 years and was led by companions and followers and supported by Malik and Abu Hanifa … Learn about the revolutions of the modernists to bring down the tyranny regimes

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Framing agents
The truth is that the predecessors were not on the same doctrine in dealing with the unjust ruler, as the oldest people differed in the ruling on leaving it by the "sword", then most of them saw the prohibition of armed exit on it, without giving up the necessity of denying the denial and opposing its injustice without fighting. The people of the hadith in particular have a long history in the political opposition to the rulers. In this article, we will try to present a party of them, with a word in understanding the objective reasons that made the applicants of the "people of hadith" at a distance from the people of authority, or to their left, if true.

The first factor that can be mentioned in establishing the modernity dimension of the sultan is the principle of “criticism” on which the origins of modern science are based, so the science of hadith is critical and its purpose as they mentioned in the books of the term hadith: “Distinguishing the true from the sick from the hadith”, and this is only possible for those who have a spirit High criticism deals with men, bonds and texts, so the traditional Islamic literature goes beyond defamation of backbiting and turning a blind eye to defects to the necessity of clarifying the conditions of the narrators; this develops in the heart of the employer the innate critical kingdom, and it inherits a boldness in cracking the bitter right in front of the sinner.

Perhaps one of the reasons for the speaker’s distance from the Sultan was also that they saw in his proximity an challenge to justice, which is the first condition of the narrator’s documentation conditions, because the person close to the Sultan benefits from his suspected money, and he is afraid of the effects of that money. He took the “prizes of the Sultan,” and whoever came close to him or entered into something of the “work of the Sultan,” until they narrated that Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal (d. 241 AH) was not praying behind his uncle Isaac bin Hanbal and he did not speak to him or his two sons because they took the Sultan’s prize.

One of the possible reasons for the sane’s natural regeneration to live with the inheritance of the prophecy is that he contemplates the biography of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, and the “Rightly guided caliphs” after him, and he sees the dimension of the apartment between them and the image of the princes of his age, the corrupt and weak, so that the bright picture present in his heart and his speech is a reminder Always ugliness of the sultans of his time.

Early opposition
From the early examples of the tendency of the campaign of the hadith to criticize the political authority recorded by the translations of the companions of the companions of their rift with the word of truth in the hands of the rulers, whenever they saw them deviating from the seriousness of the path on which the Messenger of God, peace and blessings of God be upon him, left them, and here we will present pictures of them away from entering into events It was known as the "Great Fitna" among the Companions at the end of Uthman Ibn Affan (35 A.H.)

Abu Dhar al-Ghafari (d. 32 AH) – whose hadiths in Imam Ahmad's chain of prayer amounted to about three hundred – was known to be the owner of the most famous political opposition among the companions before the major sedition, by criticizing the position of Uthman bin Affan and his ruler on the Levant Muawiya bin Abi Sufyan (d. 60 AH) From the issue of the treasure of gold and silver, as Imam Al-Bukhari (d. 256 AH) in Al-Sahih with his chain of transmission on the authority of Zaid bin Wahb (d. 96 AH), he said:

I passed in Al-Rabza (= the eastern location of Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah by about 200 km). So, if I were in Abu Dhar, may God be pleased with him, I said to him: What did you get this home for? He said: “I was with the mother, and Muawiyah and I differed in (the Almighty saying):“ Those who seize gold and silver and do not spend it for God’s sake ”(At-Tawbah: 34) Muawiyah said: I came down among the People of the Book, and I said: I came down among us and among them, so he was between me and him in He wrote to Uthman, may God be pleased with him, complaining about me, and Uthman wrote to me: “I presented the city and presented it, so people popped up for me as if they had never seen me before, so I mentioned that to Uthman and he said to me: If you want to step down, you will be close.” That one who sent me to this house, and if they commanded me Ethiopian, I heard and obeyed. "

A similar situation occurred between the famous Zahid companion Abu al-Darda (d. 32 AH); if he and Muawiyah differed in the sale of the sales, he mentioned a hadith recently he heard from the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, and said in protest, "Whoever excuses me from Muawiya! I tell him about the Messenger of God, he prayed God be upon him and tell me his opinion, I will not live in a land where you are. "

As for Abu Huraira (d. 59 AH), who is the most recent companion of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, he was contrary to what the late Shiites and others claim that he was a lure to the Umayyads, and he alluded a lot to his opposition to their rule and his dissatisfaction with him, but he did not state his fear for Himself was the one who oppressed their authority, although he became boldest and open in the last era of Muawiyah. Al-Bukhari recounted with his chain of transmission to Abu Hurairah that he said: “I have preserved two pots from the Messenger of God, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him. As for one of them, I transmitted it. As for the other, if I transmitted it, this pharynx was cut.”

Al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani (d. 852 AH) said, explaining the previous hadith: “The scholars carried the vessel that he did not transmit to hadiths in which the names of bad princes are shown, their conditions and their time. By God from the head of sixty and the Emirate of the boys », he refers to the caliphate of Yazid bin Muawiyah because it was sixty years of migration, and God answered the supplication of Abu Hurairah, who died a year earlier.

Mosques remained centers for rallying participants in the revolutions led by modernists in the midst of Islam (Al Jazeera)

Companions revolutions
The positions of the companions opposed to the authority reached its goal with the event of the exit of Al-Hussein bin Ali – a great companion and the son of the daughter of the Messenger of God, peace and blessings be upon him – Ali Yazid bin Muawiyah in the year 61 AH, so he opened a series of armed revolts led by the scholars and were their fuel, and extended – on successive waves, even if Sometimes spaced – about 85 years between the years 61 AH and 145 AH, and the failure of one of them was not possible without the outbreak of another, even after years.

After the revolution of Al-Hussein, the revolution of the companion Suleiman bin Srad Al-Khaza’i came – and he had hadiths on the authority of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him – who led the "army of repents" from Iraq to resist the injustice of illiteracy in 64 AH, and the number of his forces reached four thousand fighters. Likewise, the great companion Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr ibn al-Awwam (d. 73 e) confronted Abdul-Malik ibn Marwan (d. 86 e) and his ruler al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf al-Thaqafi (d. 95 e); and other great events and revolutions that took great interest from historians and researchers.

However, the major revolutions seeking to change the rule by force during the Companions ’era were the revolt of the people of Medina – the capital of the people of the hadith – in the year 63 AH of Yazid bin Muawiyah, who the Imam Al-Dhahabi (d. 749 AH) said: Allah".

This revolution is called the “Revolution of the Hurra” and was led by Abdullah bin Mutee al-Adawi, Emir of the emigrants, and Abdullah bin Hanzala Al-Ansari as Emir of the Ansar, after a delegation of them headed by Ibn Mutee ’Ali Yazid testified that he“ drinks alcohol and leaves prayer and goes beyond the rule of the book ” ('The Beginning and the End' by Ibn Katheer T 774 AH).

Thus the people of the city dislocated the pledge of Yazid and pledged allegiance to Abdullah bin Mutai at the pulpit of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, and made his mosque his headquarters, and most of the people of the city went out to fight the army of Yazid coming from the Levant. Ibn Katheer reported from Imam Ibn Shihab Al-Zuhri (d. 124 AH) that he was asked On the number of the "dead on the day of al-Hurra (PF), he said: Seven hundred of the faces of the people were immigrants, supporters, and the faces of the loyal, and those who do not know who were freed and slave and others ten thousand."

Because of the horrors of the free fall, the relationship of the city's modernizer and its imam, Saeed bin Al-Musayyib (d. 94 AH), worsened with illiteracy, and he had courageous stances in criticizing their rule, which he paid to the death boat.

One of the famous interlocutors of the leaders of the revolution of the people of the city who were killed in its events was the stronghold of Bin Sinan Al-Ashja’i, who Al-Dhahabi said about him: “He has a companionship and narration. He carried a brigade brigade on the day of the conquest…. A delegation of Yazid (bin Muawiya) saw from him evil things, and he went to The city and Khula Yazid was one of the senior people of Al-Hurra.

And among them Abdullah bin Zaid bin Asim Al-Ansari, who mentioned Imam Abu Naim Al-Asbhani (d. 430 AH) that he had witnessed Badra, and Al-Dhahabi stated that he was the author of the hadith of ablution. Likewise, Masroq Bin Al-Ajda'a Al-Hamdani, who Ibn Saad (d. 230 AH) translated in his book 'The Classes', and said that "he has good hadiths", and Al-Dhahabi described him as "Imam Al-Kidwa Al-Alam."

Modern scholars have attributed to their revolutions against the rulers that the injustice and neglect of their parish interests must be changed (Al Jazeera)

Readers' Revolution
As for the time of the disciples, it is the time of the undisputed revolutionary modernists. In it the revolution of the people of the great hadith was known as the “revolution of the readers”, and the term “readers” at that time was called the Islamic scholars at all, as the disciplines of jurisprudence, reading and modernization were not distinguished at that time by separate fields, Therefore, most of its participants were modern, jurists and readers.

The events of this revolution erupted in Iraq, specifically in the two great Egyptians, Basra and Kufa, and many of their scholars revolted with the military leader Abd al-Rahman bin al-Ash'ath al-Kindi (d. 84 AH) to "depose Abd al-Malik and his deputy (on Iraq the pilgrims) … so he pledged allegiance to God’s book And the Sunnah of His Messenger and dislocated imams of misguidance and jihad atheists. "According to what Imam Ibn Katheer mentioned, which tells us that Ibn Al-Ash'ath" walked with him thirty-three thousand horsemen and a hundred and twenty thousand men. " He also said: "The group of those who met Ibn Al-Ash'ath was one hundred thousand fighters who take the gift, and with them are like their loyalists."

On the reasons for the revolution of these scholars, the Golden Imam says in his book 'The Walk of the Flags of the Nobles': “And with him (= Ibn Al-Ash'ath), scholars and peace of God Almighty rose up with him when the pilgrims violated the death of the prayer time, and for his injustice and tyranny.” The modernized historian Khalifa bin Khayyat (d. 240 AH) determines the number of scholars in this army by saying – a narration from the follower Malik bin Dinar (d. 127 AH) – that he "went out with Ibn Al-Ash'ath five hundred readers, all seeing the fighting."

The revolutionary scholars took control of Basra and Kufa, expelling them from the Umayyad administration led by the pilgrims and almost snatching it from Iraq as a whole, after they had shaken the Umayyad rule by a great earthquake through a series of battles in which the "circle (= victory) of the people of Iraq over the people of the Levant was in most days." Ibn Katheer mentioned.

Among the well-known imams of the modernists who came out in the revolution of Ibn Al-Ash'ath: The great companion Anas bin Malik (d. 93 AH), who is considered among the many companions of the narration of the hadith about the Prophet, peace and blessings of God be upon him. He went out with the group of scholars and speakers of the followers who revolted with Ibn Al-Ashath, and he was old It has exceeded ninety.

Also among the revolts was his son al-Nadhar bin Anas, who is also among the people of the hadiths, among them Muhammad bin Saad bin Abi Waqas Ibn al-Sahabi, who was narrated by al-Bukhari, Muslim, and most of those classified in the hadith. Al-Dhahabi said in it: “The Imam had confidence…. He narrated a valid sentence of knowledge. Then he was one of those who rose on pilgrims with Ibn Al-Shaath, so he was captured on the day (battle) of the Monastery of Skulls and the pilgrims killed him.”

Among them is Abu Ubaidah Ibn al-Sahabi, famous Abdullah bin Masoud; Mujahid bin Jabr (d. 104 AH), Sheikh of the readers and Imam of the interpreters and speakers; and the great Imam Amr bin Dinar (d. 126 AH) “Sheikh of Al-Haram in his time”; and Judge Amer bin Sharahil Al-Shaabi (d. 106 AH); The famous jurist al-Hafiz al-Muhdith Abd al-Rahman Ibn Abi Laila, among them the great imam who defeated al-Ha`q Sa`id ibn Jubayr, who was subsequently killed by pilgrims in the year 95 AH in a famous story. And everyone who has anything to do with the hadith and wrote hadith knows the weight of these names in the layers of hadeeth flags.

And none of these except one narrated for him the owners of the six books (Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawood, Al-Tirmidhi, Al-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah) and other classifiers of hadith, and their hadiths are extensive in them, and their names shine in the gold chains of ashes, reminding them and their jurisprudence and their courage, and most of them died martyrs in this revolution against injustice .

Among the images of their indignation in the battles of the revolution, the saying of the leader of the "readers" in the field, Jiblah bin Zuhr al-Jaafi, which was narrated by Imam Ibn Katheer: "O people, it is not fleeing from one of the ugliest of you, so they fight about your religion and your world. Saeed bin Jabir said about that, and the people said: Fight them On their injustices, their weak oppression, and their mortification of prayer. "It is clear from this that the motives of combating political tyranny and removing social injustice were the main engine of these scholars who were modernized in their revolutions that set their fires ablaze.

The location of Deir al-Jumajm in the year 83 AH was the conclusion of a long series of battles that started in the year 81 AH and it was said that it exceeded eighty locations, and the victory was mostly an ally of the army of readers and Ibn Al-Ash'ath, until they were defeated decisively in Deir al-Jumajam, and their revolution ended.

Hundreds of scholars, both modernists and jurists, have left the science rings in the mosques to the fields of the revolution, suggesting the priority of addressing the grievances of power by the armed force (Al Jazeera)

Support for revolutions
The time of the class of senior followers is almost a watershed stage in the general Sunni position on injustice and the armed revolution against it, as the defeat of the "readers" at the hands of the pilgrims in the "Monastery of Skulls" has proven useful in confronting the injustice with the sword, and after that, fatwas forbidding going out to the imams of injustice and spreading the "forced" doctrine The doctrine of "deferment", as a setback and retreat, was imposed by the bitter defeat.

Despite what happened to the idea of ​​armed resistance after the successive denial defeats of the revolutions supported by scholars, the principle of political opposition to rulers remained present, following the doctrine of "enjoining good and forbidding evil", and taking the determination "to crack the word of truth in the hands of an unjust imam", even when someone chooses the peace of rulers His hatred of their outcasts, as it is known from the positions of Imam Ibn Shihab Al-Zuhri – who is the imam of the people of hadith in his time – who reconciled with the Umayyads despite the history of his family hostile to them.

Thus, since the late era of followers, things have been slowly moving to contentment with the “peaceful” political opposition – if it is true – without the armed revolution; however, a group of the people of jurisprudence and hadith as if they remained on the first opinion.

Imam Abu Hanifa al-Numan (d. 150 AH) – the founder of the Hanafi school and owner of the "Musnad of Abu Hanifa" – stood with the revolution of Zaid bin Ali bin Al-Hussein bin Ali bin Abi Talib – who is credited with the Zaidi school of jurisprudence – in Kufa in the year 122 AH against the Umayyad caliph Hisham bin Abd al-Malik (d. 125 AH), because Zaid was his sale to which people pledged allegiance: We invite you to the Book of God and the Sunnah of His Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, and the struggle of the oppressors, to defend the oppressed, and to give to the disadvantaged … So he pledged allegiance to fifteen thousand and said: forty thousand (Al-Kamil Ibn Al-Atheer, 630 A.H.).

After the failure of the Zayd Revolution, Abu Hanifa supported the modernized Imam revolution (his narration was published by Sunan Abi Dawood, Al-Tirmidhi and Al-Nasa’i) Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Hassan bin Al-Hassan bin Ali bin Abi Talib, nicknamed “the fine soul” on the rule of Al-Mansur Al-Abbasi (d. 158 AH) year 145 AH.

And they mentioned in Musnad Abu Hanifa that he narrated from Ikrimah from Ibn Abbas from the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him: “The master of the martyrs Hamzah, and a man who rose to an unjust imam and commanded and forbade him.” Abu Hanifa was beaten not so long as he took over the judiciary and what he was satisfied with, and he is said to have died with a poison that Al-Mansur insulted in retaliation for his opposition to him and his refusal to take up positions in his authority!

As for Imam Malik bin Anas (d. 179 AH) – who is the owner of the Maliki school and is classified as the 'al-Muwatta', one of the mothers of the hadith blogs – he supported the revolution of the "pure soul" and he was speaking with a hadith: "There is no divorce for his compulsion", and he hints that people are forced to sell allegiance to Al-Mansour Al-Abbasi by making them swear by divorce that they would not take off his sale, and the pledge of allegiance is invalid and therefore they have the right to pledge allegiance to the "pure soul", chosen if they want.

The owner of the city governor was arrested as a result of this, and he ordered that he be beaten until his shoulder was dislocated and carried unconscious of him, but he refused to back down from his position and said in this statement, which was recorded in history that scholars should oppose the authority if it deviates: “It was struck while Sa`id bin Musayyib and Muhammad ibn al-Minkadr were beaten (d. 130 AH) And Rabiaa (bin Abd al-Rahman (d. 136 AH)), and there is no good for someone who is not harmed in this matter. ”According to what al-Dhahabi narrated in his book 'History of Islam for Gold.'

Most of the revolutions of the modernists launched from Iraq towards the Umayyad rule center in the Levant (Al Jazeera)

Revolutionary opinions
As for Imam Al-Shafi’i (d. 204 AH) – he is the owner of the Shafi’i school, and he has been compiled for him “Musnad Al-Shafi’i” from the hadiths mentioned in some of his books – the Shafi’i sources are gathered on the fact that the Caliph Al-Abbasi (d. 193 AH) sent to him asking him from Yemen about the year 184 AH, and imprisoned him with the illusion that He is murdered due to the tip of some of them, who says that he was planning a revolution against Al-Rashid from Yemen.

It is no wonder that any authority retaliates against Al-Shafi’i. His political jurisprudence views were extremely liberating, ensuring peaceful political opposition to anyone, no matter how long their owners abstained from weapons and fighting, and if they took up arms demanding a clear grievance, Al-Shafi’i sees the response of their grievance not to fight them, and they only fight if they fight. Injustice and aggression, if they leave the fighting – for whatever reason – their fighting is not lawful.

He stipulated that for their killing, it was difficult conditions that they be "coming, refraining, desiring (meaning to fight), so when they removed these meanings, they got out of the state in which their fighting was permitted." He passed the testimony of those who were known to be truthful of them, and he ruled them with their share in the household of money. He did not waste any of their material or moral rights, contemplating Ali bin Abi Talib and Omar bin Abdul Aziz (d. 101 AH) as narrated from them (the book 'The Mother' of Al-Shafi’i).

Thus, as if the scholars – especially the first cent – were seeing the armed revolution first, then separating after that – in the second cent – between a supporter of an armed exit and contenting themselves with the peaceful opposition (the word of truth), and no one appeared in them calling for loyalty to the rulers to oppress and support them and defend their mistakes And to justify it, and not to permit the blood of opponents, even if they are wrong and misguided.

Rather, most of them kept their reservations and apprehension from any relationship with the rulers, and warn of their proximity, so he recommends each other saying: "Do not enter the authority, and if you say: command him to obey God", and that is because he fears that he will be tempted by his sword and gold. They used to say, "What is worse for the world to bring princes," and it is better not to "be stained with something of the authority of the Sultan," and they like the world to "not accept the prizes of the Sultan" because his money is suspected and suspected of corruption.

Some imams of scholars and hadiths have left the hadiths of famous people from trustworthy because they entered into something of the "work of the sultan", and they took on Sufyan ibn Uyaynah – who is in the Imamate in the hadith – that he was "tainted with authority."

Although the majority of modernists turned their backs on the armed revolution after the failure of the first revolutions, they remained clinging to the politically denial of the sultans ’grievances. (Al Jazeera)

Tribulation and fortitude
As for the third hundred – which is the golden age of the Sunnah, gathering, revising, and transcribing – it witnessed an immortal page of the history of the people of the hadith in the face of the Sultan, as they led the opponents and carried the banner of the deniers, due to the Abbasid caliphs converting to the Mu'tazilite doctrine and their attempt to carry them to him by the power of authority, especially their saying in the Qur’an. He is a creature. ”And what was known as the“ sedition of the creation of the Qur’an ”or“ the trial of the creation of the Qur’an ”, which was the title of confronting the modernists with the Imam of the People of Hadith in his time, Ahmed bin Hanbal.

The ordeal began at the time of al-Ma`mun (d. 218 AH), and the period of al-Mu'tasim (d. 227 AH), then the days of al-Wathiq (d. 232 AH), intensified, and the beginning of the era of al-Mutawakkil (d. 247 AH) ended. The irony is that those who were at the forefront of the persecution of the people of hadith at the time are Mu'tazila, and they were the ones who were subjected to persecution of opinion. The extent of the killing amounted to a few decades ago, with the support and blessing of some of the speakers!

If we make the modernists a place called "the stream of political Islam" today, and the Mu'tazila somewhere are called "the civil stream" while paying attention to the big difference between them which is embracing Mu'tazilites for the Islamic legal reference, then how the comparison will appear bitter, honest and comical, when we see power from that time bring these people closer once And you slaughter others, then another authority, or the authority itself, comes to bring the oppressors of yesterday and the slaughter of their violators!

The persecution took place against "the people of the hadith" then, and they were led by chains until some of them died in it. Imam Ahmad steadfastly witnessed the witness, and great stories were narrated in that ordeal, including the story of the death of Imam al-Bawiti, a student of Imam al-Shafi’i who was taken from Egypt to Iraq bound by chains of iron, imprisoned there until he died But before he died, he left us his immortal word: "By God, I will die in this iron, so that some people come after me who know that people have died in this regard!"

And the stories of the “tribulation of the creation of the Qur’an” are long enough, especially that they took place on the modernists; however, a story of them deserves consideration and consideration, which is the story of Ahmed bin Nasr Al-Khuzai (d. Al-Khuzai established a secret political movement armed with funding from some of his supporters, and she was preparing for a revolution against the confident Abbasid caliph, so her order was revealed and Al-Khuzai was taken and killed in the hands of the confident, but it is said that he was the one who killed him with his hand !!

والمهمُّ في قضية الخزاعي هو موقفُ أهل الحديث منه؛ فرغم أن معظمهم لم ير الثورة الشاملة على السلطان، فإنّهم حمدوا موقفه وعظّموا تضحيته، فقال فيه أحمد بن حنبل: "رحمه الله، ما كان أسخاه! لقد جاد بنفسه"، وأما إمام علماء الجرح والتعديل يحيى بن معين فكان يترحم عليه ويقول: "ختم الله له بالشهادة".

فكأنّ أهل الحديث في المائة الهجرية الأولى كانوا ثوّارًا مسلّحين؛ ثم في المائة الثانية صاروا مترددين بين الثورة المسلّحة والمعارضة السلمية؛ ثم استمرّوا على هذا التردد في المائة الثالثة، مع ميلٍ أكبر نحو المعارضة السلميّة وترك التغيير بالسلاح.

والذي أراه أن غلبة مذهب مَن رأى ترك السلاح في مواجهة قوة السلطان منطقيٌّ جدًا بعد تجارب الثورات الفاشلة المُرّة؛ لكنّ غير المنطقيّ هو أن يتحوّل "أهلُ الحديث" إلى تأييد السلطان وموالاته والدفاع عنه وعن أفعاله، وإن جار وظلم وفعل ما فعل. ويبقى تاريخ "أهل الحديث" السابقين مع السلاطين شاهدا على الهوّة العميقة بينهم وبين كثير ممن ينتسبُ إليهم من المعاصرين.

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Updated: 01/10/2019 — 12:39
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